What is Flow State? And why is it your peak productive state?



Dec 5, 2023

What is Flow State? And why is it your peak productive state?

What is Flow?

Flow, often referred to as "being in the zone", is a psychological state experienced when one is wholly absorbed in an activity, harmoniously blending challenge with capability. Science has been delving into this state for nearly half a century, and its magic is now more tangible than ever.

Background on Flow

Flow, is a mental state where individuals are deeply immersed in a particular task, leading them to operate at peak performance. This profound engagement pushes aside both external distractions and internal doubts. Initially introduced to the mainstream by Hungarian psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi in his 1990 book "Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience", the concept emphasizes complete absorption in an activity, leading to altered perceptions of time and profound feelings of satisfaction. Derived from decades of scientific research, flow represents an optimal state of consciousness where individuals feel and perform at their best. Its effects span across diverse tasks, regardless of culture or social strata.

History of Flow

While the notion of flow has roots in ancient accounts from artists, scientists, and various professionals, it was given a formal definition in the 1970s by Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Through rigorous research, including interviewing over 8,000 people from diverse backgrounds such as Himalayan climbers to Navajo shepherds, Csikszentmihalyi observed universal conditions indicative of flow. Through his interviews with numerous individuals from various fields, he observed a common set of characteristics that comprised a specific type of experience, which he termed as the flow state. Csikszentmihalyi, through his detailed research, underscored that flow is an experience that can be accessed universally.

Precursors and Steps to Access Flow

Entering the flow state isn't an accident; it's often the result of a combination of external conditions and internal mindset. So how can one access flow? Here's a breakdown of the precursors and the steps necessary for accessing the flow state.

Precursors to Flow:

  1. Clear Goals/Objectives: Having a well-defined goal allows for focused attention.
  2. Immediate Feedback: Knowing how you're doing as you proceed helps in adjusting actions and motivation to stay access and maintain the flow.
  3. Balance Between Challenge and Skill: The task should be neither too easy nor too hard relative to one's abilities.

Steps to Access Flow:

  1. Eliminate Distractions: Whether they're external, like notifications on your phone, or internal, like unresolved issues, they must be addressed or set aside.
  2. Prioritize the Task: Commit mentally to the importance of the task at hand. By understanding the significance of what you're doing, you prime yourself to dive deeper into it.
  3. Begin with Focus: Rather than waiting for inspiration to strike, start your task with intention.
  4. Take Breaks When Needed: Pushing yourself too hard can be counterproductive. If you find yourself getting fatigued or frustrated, take a short break to recharge, then return to the task with renewed energy.
  5. Maintain a Growth Mindset: This means viewing challenges as opportunities for growth rather than as obstacles. A positive attitude towards challenges can make it easier to enter the flow state.

What Does Flow Feel Like and How Is It Measured?

Flow, often dubbed as "being in the zone", is a psychological state typically characterized by these 8 main characteristics. The level to which each of these characteristics is present within an individual serve as good indicators of intensity of flow experience, despite being self reported subjective assessments. However, not every flow experience necessarily has all 8 characteristics.

  1. Complete concentration on the task
  2. Clarity of goals and reward in mind and immediate feedback
  3. Balance between challenge of the task and skills
  4. Merger of action-and-awareness leading to total awareness in task-engagement, effortlessness and ease
  5. Diminishment of self-reflective cognition and awareness of bodily processes
  6. Altered perception of time
  7. Heightened level of task-performance with feeling of complete control
  8. The experience is intrinsically rewarding and general positive affect (enjoyment, pleasure, euphoria)

Subjectively, flow is often gauged based on personal experiences, mapping onto the spectrum from micro-flow to macro-flow, determined by the intensity of individual characteristics.

Objectively, flow's neurobiological intricacies are explored through sophisticated instruments, tracking neurotransmitter systems, neural oscillation, physiological measures, and extensive functional connectivity in the brain. The link between flow's neurobiology and phenomenology remains an active area of exploration.

Increasing Flow Experiences

While flow might seem like a rare or elusive state, it's more accessible than one might think. Research suggests that with the right conditions and conscious effort, it’s possible to enter this state more frequently. By understanding the precursors and cultivating an environment conducive to flow, individuals can enhance their chances of experiencing this optimal state of being.

Here are a few steps that you can take to better access and maintain flow.

  • Practice Regularly: Like any skill, entering flow becomes easier with practice. The more you immerse yourself in tasks and challenge yourself, the more familiar the state of flow becomes.
  • Mental Preparation: Meditation, visualization, and mindfulness practices can prime your mind to enter flow by training it to focus and eliminate extraneous thoughts.
  • Meditation and Mindfulness: Regular practice can improve concentration and awareness, paving the way for flow.
  • Physical Health: Regular exercise, adequate sleep, and a balanced diet can significantly influence your ability to concentrate and dive deep into tasks.
  • Set a Timer: Using techniques like the Pomodoro Technique, work in focused intervals (e.g., 25 minutes), followed by a short break.
  • Listen to Flow Music: Curate a playlist of non-distracting background music. Instrumental or ambient tracks can help maintain concentration.
  • Design Your Workspace: Customize your workspace to minimize distractions. This could include using noise-cancelling headphones, creating a clutter-free zone, or setting up mood lighting.


By employing these strategies and understanding the science behind flow, you can harness this powerful mental state of flow. Moonlight is designed to be your guide in the journey to consistent flow. By measuring your focus in real-time, it provides personalized insights, guiding you to bridge the gap between potential and performance.

Moonlight doesn't just tell you about flow; it facilitates it. The science-backed interventions offered by our web-app are tailored based on each individual's unique needs. Whether you are in the throes of a brainstorming session, navigating the complexities of a research paper, or diving deep into financial analytics, Moonlight is there to usher you into that desired state of effortless concentration.


The content provided in this blog post is intended solely for informational and educational purposes. It is not meant to substitute professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or another qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or health objectives.


  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: the Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper and Row.
  • Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Flow theory and research. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 195–206). Oxford University Press.
  • Dietrich A. (2004). Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the experience of flow. Consciousness and cognition, 13(4), 746–761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2004.07.002
  • Kotler, S., Mannino, M., Kelso, S., & Huskey, R. (2022). First few seconds for flow: A comprehensive proposal of the neurobiology and neurodynamics of state onset. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 143, 104956. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2022.104956
  • Peifer, C., Wolters, G., Harmat, L., Heutte, J., Tan, J., Freire, T., Tavares, D., Fonte, C., Andersen, F. O., van den Hout, J., Šimleša, M., Pola, L., Ceja, L., & Triberti, S. (2022). A Scoping Review of Flow Research. Frontiers in psychology, 13, 815665. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.815665
  • Gold, J., & Ciorciari, J. (2020). A Review on the Role of the Neuroscience of Flow States in the Modern World. Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9), 137. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10090137

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